23考研外刊阅读《经济学人》双语精读版训练–朋友之间,连闻起来都…

Sri Lanka’s debt-laden economy has “collapsed” after months of shortages of food, fuel and electricity, its prime minister told lawmakers Wednesday, in comments underscoring the country’s dire situation as it seeks help from international lenders.

斯里兰卡总理周三在强调该国向国际贷款机构寻求帮助时所面临的严峻形势的评论中,对议员们表示,在斯里兰卡经历了数月食品、燃料和电力短缺之后,这个负债累累的国家经济已经“崩溃”。

1.underscore: to emphasize the fact that something is important or true

2.dire: extremely serious or terrible

《本期内容》

双语阅读

Dogs greet other dogs nose-first, as it were—sniffing each other from fore to (especially) aft. People are not quite so open about the process ofsniffingeach otherout. But the size of the perfume industry suggests scent is important in human relations, too. There is also evidence that human beings can infer kinship,deduceemotional states and even detect disease via the sense of smell.

狗之间会先用鼻子打招呼,就好像它们会从前到后(尤其是后)互相嗅对方一样。人们对嗅出对方的过程并不那么开放。但香水行业的规模表明,气味在人际关系中也很重要。也有证据表明,人类通过嗅觉可以推断亲属关系,推断情绪状态,甚至检测疾病。

Now, Inbal Ravreby, Kobi Snitz and Noam Sobel of the Weizmann Institute of Science, in Israel, have gone a step further. They think they have shown, admittedly in a fairly smallsampleof individuals, that friends actually smell alike. They have also shown that this is probably the case from the get-go, with people picking friends at least partly on the basis of body odour, rather than the bodyodoursof people who become friends subsequently converging.

现在,以色列魏茨曼科学研究所的Inbal Ravreby, Kobi Snitz和Noam Sobel研究取得了新的进展。他们认为自己可以已经证明,在相当小的个体样本中,朋友实际上闻起来气味相似。他们还表明,这种情况可能从一开始就存在,人们在择友时至少部分原因在于体味,因此并非是人们在成为朋友之后具有相似的体味。

Why scent might play a role in forming friendships remains obscure. Other qualities correlated with being friends, including age, appearance, education, religion and race, are either immediately obvious or rapidly become so. But while some individuals have strong and noticeable body odour, many—at least since the use of soap has become widespread—do not. It is present. But it issubliminal.

气味在建立友情中可能发挥作用的原因尚不清楚。那些成为朋友的其他相关特质,包括年龄、外表、教育、宗教和种族,要么是立刻显现出来,要么很快也能表现出来。但是,虽然有些人有强烈而明显的体味,但很多人——至少自从肥皂得到推广应用以来——没有很明显的体味。体味还是存在的,只不过气味微弱。这种情况可以呈现出来。但这是潜意识的。

Dr Ravreby speculates that there may be “an evolutionary advantage in having friends that are genetically similar to us”. Body odour is known to be linked with genetic make-up (particularly with the genes underlying part of the immune system called the major histocompatibility complex). Smelling others may thus allow subconscious inferences about genetic similarity to be drawn.

Ravreby博士推测,“和与我们具有相似基因的人成为朋友可能具有进化优势”。众所周知,体味与基因构成有关(尤其与一种名为主要组织相容性复合体的免疫系统基因有关)。因此,通过闻别人的气味可以从潜意识里判断出基因相似性。

That still, however, does not quite answer the question. Dr Ravreby speculates that odour-matching of this sort may be an extended form of kin selection, which spreads an individual’s genescollaterally, by helping the reproduction of relatives who are likely to share them. If those who smell similar are kin enough for this to apply, their children will be as well. “So by helping friends,” Dr Ravreby offers, “we help spread our own genes.”

然而,这并没有完全回答这个问题。Ravreby博士推测,这种气味匹配可能是亲缘选择的延伸形式,这种方式可以通过帮助相似基因进行亲缘繁殖,从而实现间接传播个体的基因。如果气味相似的人有足够的亲缘关系,他们的孩子也会这样做。“因此,通过帮助朋友,”拉雷比博士说,“我们就能帮助传播自己的基因。”

本文节选自:The Economist(经济学人)

发布时间:2022.06.23

词汇积累

1. deduce

/d??dju?s/

v.推断,演绎;对……追本溯源

2. sample

/?sɑ?mp?l/

v. 品尝,尝试(食品、饮料); 体验(活动); 对……作抽样调查; 选录(歌曲等,用于其他录音)

n. 样本,样品; (供科学或医学检测用的)抽样样本; 抽选人员; (用于新乐曲中的)选录的歌曲

3. odour

/???d?/

n. (尤指难闻的)气味,臭味; 迹象; 名声

4. subliminal

/s?b?l?m?n?l/

n.潜意识;阈下意识

adj.阈下的;潜在意识的;微小得难以察觉的

5. collaterally

/k??l?t?r?li/

adv. 旁系地;附带地

词组搭配

1.sniff out 发现;寻找

写作句总结

They think they have shown, admittedly in a fairly small sample of individuals, that friends actually smell alike.

结构: They think they have shown, admittedly in a fairly small sample of individuals, that ….

他们认为自己可以证明,在相当小的个体样本中,…

例句: They think they have shown, admittedly in a fairly small sample of individuals, that people who enjoy listening to music are more emotional.

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